Piano music is usually written using something called The Grand Staff.
The Grand Staff is a set of concise and elegant symbols, a unique symbolic language, that communicates an incredible amount of information in a very economical way.
Such information includes…
- What notes to play, when to play them, and how long to sustain them.
- When not to play (rests)
- Articulation for each note (legato, staccato, etc)
- What key the piece is in, and any changes of key
- Rhythm and meter
- Melodic phrasing
- Dynamics (loud, soft, changes in loudness)
- Can you think of some others?